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Computed Tomography: Advances in Research and Applications 2017

Computed Tomography: Advances in Research and Applications  2017

Computed Tomography: Advances in Research and Applications 2017

This book provides new research on computed tomography. Chapter One presents strategies for computer-aided designing of surgical guides for dental implant procedures based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Chapter Two gives an in depth analysis

of using CBCT in anatomic variations of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen. Chapter Three discusses the use of CBCT for an accurate analysis of the nasopalatine canal. Chapter Four reviews the use of CBCT to assess morphometric characteristics of the greater

palatine canal. Chapter Five reviews and discusses the application of state-ofart content based image retrieval schemes in pathological risk analysis of lung computed tomography images.

Chapter 1 – Reconstruction of missing teeth with dental implants is a frequently

used procedure in the rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. An important factor in the success of the therapy, is proper planning of the implant position in the alveolar bone using three-dimensional imaging. The transfer of the planned position of the implants in

the patient’s mouth during surgery is a difficult stage in the procedure. This chapter presents the design strategies for surgical guides based on CBCT and scans of the intraoral situation. The use of these guides during surgical procedures helps to carry out the implant

placement in a predictable, fast and minimally invasive manner. It also helps to increase the predictability and safety of the treatment, to reduce pain and to shorten the recovery time after surgery. Chapter 2 – Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is increasingly being

used as a diagnostic tool in dentistry, especially in the field of oral surgery. Its high resolution three dimensional images reveal anatomic structures more clearly.The mandibular canal hosts the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels, which are critical anatomic structures for surgical

procedures. The mandibular canal in several cases doesn’t appear uniformly as a single canal, it may present various branching patterns. These bifid mandibular canals must be taken into consideration to avoid clinical complications. A number of classifications have been

developed on anatomic and panoramic radiography surveys. However, the true incidence of bifid mandibular canal is underestimated on panoramic images due to the twodimensional nature of panoramic radiography. The overlap of anatomic structures such as soft palate,

airway, milohioid groove, and submandibular fossa may interfere with the visualization of these neurovascular bifid canals. Also, the buccolingual type of canals may be missed on panoramic images, but can be easily identified on CBCT images. CBCT allows for better depiction

of small vascular canals regardless trabecular pattern. The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the anterolateral region of the mandible through which the mental nerve emerges. The mental nerve represents one of the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve, and

supplies the lower lip, cheeks, chin, and the vestibular gingiva of mandibular incisors. Although the mental foramen is one of the most important neurovascular landmarks in the anterior mandible, its identification is not always possible using panoramic radiographs.

The visualization on panoramic images is influenced by mental foramen size, trabecular pattern, mental foramen emergence, and patient’s age. However, a CBCT image improves mental foramen depiction, offering advantages over two-dimensional radiological images.

The mental foramen usually remains as a single structure, however in some cases, the mental nerve branches before exiting the mandible originating small foramina in the area surrounding the mental foramen known as accessory mental foramina. This anatomic

landmark is not rare, it has been reported a rate of occurrence up to 20% in CBCT studies, and its position is crucial for surgical procedures involving this region, such as surgical rehabilitation after mandibular trauma, bone harvesting from the chin, root resection of mandibular

premolars, and particularly for dental implants placement. An accessory mental foramen located above the mental foramen directly affects the treatment planning using dental implants, since their position may limit surgical procedures. This was found in up to 4% of the population,

which means it is necessary to consider these accessory foramina to the main mental foramen. An accessory mental foramen located closely to the apex of the lower teeth can simulate false periapical pathology. By using the CBCT, continuity with the mandibular canal can be

easily identified which avoids unnecessary damage. Therefore, a CBCT image examination may be a very important aid before surgical treatments in the mandible.

Chapter 3 – The nasopalatine canal is an anatomic limitation that interferes with implant placement when ridge

resorption is present. The nasopalatine canal is connected to the nasal cavity through the foramina of Stenson, and to the oral cavity through the incisive foramen. The nasopalatine canal contains the terminal branch of the descending nasopalatine artery and the nasopalatine nerve.

Due to nasopalatine canal anatomy being highly variable, for dental implant treatment planning and placement, a precise anatomic description is necessary. The critical region anterior to the nasopalatine canal is defined as an anatomic area that should not invaded surgically, to

avoid neurovascular complications and failure of implant osseointegration. Due to bone ridge resorption after tooth loss, the nasopalatine canal can occupy up to 58% of buccal plate width, the area available for implant placement. This critical region may be evaluated with

accuracy three dimensionally using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to ensure proper implant position. This chapter shows the morphometric characteristics of the nasopalatine canal, the nasopalatine angle, the dimensions of the buccal bone plate, and the palatal

bone plate relative to the nasopalatine canal. This description is based on the analysis of three anatomic planes by CBCT. Chapter 4 – Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Maecenas porttitor congue massa. Fusce posuere, magna sed pulvinar ultricies,

purus lectus malesuada libero, sit amet commodo magna eros quis urna. Nunc viverra imperdiet enim. Fusce est. Vivamus a tellus. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Proin pharetra nonummy pede. Mauris et orci.

Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a useful tool for evaluating the greater palatine canal morphometrically on the three anatomic planes. The greater palatine canal is located in a critical anatomic area and has a great clinical relevance. The pterygopalatine fossa

is connected to the oral cavity by the greater palatine canal. The pterygopalatine fossa contains the maxillary nerve, the maxillary artery, the venous rami and the pterygopalatine ganglion. The palatine nerves descend since pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine

canal. The greater palatine nerve emerges on the palate through the greater palatine foramen and the lesser palatine nerves emerge through the lesser palatine foramina. The position of the greater palatine foramen is of great interest to dentists, maxillofacial surgeons and

otolaryngologists for anesthetic purposes, and also for obtaining connective tissue grafts for periodontal purposes. The greater palatine canal allows blocking of the maxillary nerve and therefore allows anesthesia of the sinus, the maxillary teeth, the tissue palatal and

the nasal region. Due to the greater palatine foramen being hidden by palatal mucosa thickness, a clinical and radiological location is necessary for treatment planning of several oral surgical procedures. CBCT images of the greater palatine foramen describe the dimensions

and position of each greater palatine foramen with respect to different landmarks. An exact location of the greater palatine foramen is necessary to avoid damaging the greater palatine neurovascular bundle. Morphometric classifications of the greater palatine canal are important

to applying anesthesia correctly and to avoid hemorrhagic risks. It is necessary to keep in mind that the greater palatine canal is a bone structure with numerous morpho-anatomical variations. The anatomy of the greater palatine canal can be a limiting factor in the block of

the maxillary nerve. Nowadays, CBCT images provide an exhaustive anatomic description of the greater palatine foramen and the greater palatine canal in the axial, sagittal and coronal slices. Chapter 5 – Lung cancer is one of the most concerned diseases around the world. Generally,

its mortality is very high because the malignant tissue of lung cannot be checked out timely.



Once cancerous cells in pulmonary parenchyma are detected in the early stage, the cure rate can be enhanced. A large collection of high resolution computed tomography (CT) images and

their diagnostic information make it possible to analyze a new suspected case based on these historical data using data mining technologies. Although lung CT images provide us much valuable pathological information about cancerization,it is tough to extract and utilize it directly

due to its irregularity in content. Thus, applying the current content based image retrieval (CBIR) schemes to assess a medical image can produce an exciting and promising effect. In this chapter, we will review and discuss the application of the stateof-art CBIR schemes in pathological

risk analysis of lung CT images. 

Product details

  • Paperback: 70 pages
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Inc (March 10, 2017)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1536107662
  • ISBN-13: 978-1536107661

 

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