[ads2] [toggle title=”Description” state=”open”]Being diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be a severe disappointment, and life after diagnosis can be defined as an existence filled with uncertainty as to the short-and long-term impact of the disease. SLE is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease that is persistent and recurrent and has the potential of becoming life threatening. The manifestations and severity of the disease varies between individuals. SLE can potentially influence nearly all of the body’s organ systems. In this book, Chapter One reviews, Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP), one of the nonspecific skin changes that occur in SLE. Chapter Two presents the debate on the causes of fatigue in SLE and factors that increase fatigue. Chapter Three reviews and illustrates the important findings of musculoskeletal diseases in SLE. Chapter Four examines SLE in young adults and reviews information about the pain, social impact, and interventions to improve functioning of these young adults. Chapter 1 – Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic autoimmune inflammatory disease with skin manifestations in 72-85% of the cases. One of the nonspecific skin changes that occur in SLE is easily recognized as Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP). RP was reported in 18- 46% of SLE patients, more prevalent in female patients, in older age, with significantly higher ratio in the subsets of SLE patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, and focal neuropsychiatric events. No specific, pathognomonic capillaroscopic changes can be commonly detected in unselected SLE population: tortuous capillaries, capillaries in the form of coil or corkscrew, and enlarged capillaries. The number of SLE patients with scleroderma-like pattern of capillary changes is very small, and it seems to be more frequently associated with features such as RP, anticardiolipin antibodies, and anti-U1 RNP antibodies. It is not exactly known whether the occurrence of RP in patients with SLE suggests a different course of the disease or presence of specific clinical symptoms. Therefore, the examination of patients with SLE who contracted RP is an important, challenging task. Chapter 2 – Fatigue is reported by up to 90% of people with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The exact cause of fatigue is as yet unknown however some of the proposed causes include (i) that it is an independent symptom of SLE, (ii) that it occurs as a result of increased disease activity and (iii) that fatigue is a result of the psychosocial impact of managing the daily impact of SLE. Regardless of the underlying causative mechanism of this symptom, fatigue is identified as the most difficult and troublesome aspect of the disease. Despite its high prevalence, people with SLE report that little attention is given to fatigue during hospital or clinic visits. This oversight is thought to arise from inadequate understanding and recognition of fatigue by health professionals and a lack of medical interventions to alleviate the symptom. This chapter will present the debate on the causes of fatigue in SLE and factors that increase fatigue. It will then focus on the impact of fatigue for the person with SLE and present research on how people with SLE describe their fatigue and its impact on daily activities with a particular emphasis on work. The final section of the chapter will provide an overview of how to measure fatigue and will outline some fatigue management strategies that health professionals can recommend to their patients.
Chapter 3 – Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ involvement. Symptoms and clinical findings vary from patient to patient. However, arthralgia is one of the most common symptoms in 90 percent of patients. Non-deforming nonerosive polyarthritis, Jaccoud’s arthropathy (JA) (a nonerosive reducible deforming type of arthropathy), tenosynovitis, osteonecrosis, insufficiency fracture, infection, myopathy and myositis are included in musculoskeletal diseases in SLE. Moreover, there is another type of arthritis, so-called “rhupus,” coexistence of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the management of arthritis and other musculoskeletal diseases in SLE is not well established compared to RA. In addition, widely accepted diagnostic imaging criteria for arthritis of SLE does not exist. Consequently, accurate characterization by a method using various modalities including plain radiography, ultrasonography, CT, scintigraphy and MRI should be required. The authors review and illustrate the important findings of musculoskeletal diseases in SLE comprehensively. Chapter 4 – Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic autoimmune disease categorized by severe and chronic inflammation. It affects mostly females especially of African and Caribbean descent and is responsible for significantly reduced quality of life for as many as 1.5 million people in the United States. Young adults with this chronic illness frequently experience pain, which may be similar to pain experiences of adults with arthritis. They may also experience fatigue, withdrawal from participation in everyday activities, and social isolation. This review of literature examines SLE in young adults and reviews information about the pain, social impact, and interventions to improve functioning of these young adults. The information presented in this review delivers insights for health professionals and other persons supporting young adults in managing the effects of this disease. Specifically, information about ways in which family members and friends can support young adults dealing with SLE will be discussed. Additionally, discussion of the use of pain management strategies and other interventions aimed at improving functioning will provide information for improving the lives of young adults with SLE.[/toggle]
The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS.[/toggle]
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- Series: Immunology and Immune System Disorders
- Paperback: 137 pages
- Publisher: Nova Science Pub Inc; UK ed. edition (January 24, 2017)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1536106704
- ISBN-13: 978-1536106701
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